Como guardar criptomoedas com segurança em 2024

Obtaining or buying a cryptocurrency is one thing, while storing it securely requires entirely different skills and knowledge.

This guide teaches you how to protect your funds, choose the right wallet, and avoid the most common risks of digital currencies.

What is a cryptocurrency wallet.

A cryptocurrency wallet is a software program designed to store your public and private keys, send and receive digital currencies, monitor your balance, and interact with various blockchains. You need to have a cryptocurrency wallet to manage your crypto assets and keep them safe.

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There are many cryptocurrency wallets out there, but the essential distinction between them is whether they are hot or cold .

- One hot wallet is connected to the internet and can be accessed at any time.

- One cold wallet is not connected to the internet and allows you to store your funds offline. You can still receive funds at any time, but no one can transfer them.

hot wallets include all online cloud wallets, most mobile and software wallets and exchanges.

cold wallets are wallets hardware, paper wallets held offline, similar offline and USB data storage devices, and even physical bearer items such as physical Bitcoins.

Most cryptocurrency holders use cold and hot wallets. Hot wallets are useful for frequent trading, while cold wallets are better for holding digital assets for the long term.

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But before we explore different wallets, here is a brief reminder of why keeping your digital assets on Exchanges is generally not a good idea.

Types of cryptocurrency wallets

There are four distinct categories of cryptocurrency wallets: paper , hardware , a cloud and online . Let's take a look at each of them.

paper wallets

Paper wallets are generally classified as cold storage. The term “paper wallet” generally refers to a physical copy or paper print of your public and private keys. Other times it means software used to generate a key pair along with a digital file for printing. Whatever the case, paper wallets can guarantee a relatively high level of security. You can import your paper wallet into a software client or simply scan its QR code to move your funds.

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If a paper wallet is available for the cryptocurrency of your choice, you will likely find a guide on how to make one on the project website or community page. MyEtherWallet is a universal way to make a paper wallet for Ethereum and all ERC-20 tokens. use Bitcoin Paper Wallet Generator to generate a paper wallet for Bitcoin.

While paper wallets are cool, they also carry their share of risk. For example, paper wallets can be easily damaged, burned, easy to copy and take pictures of, and require mutual trust if you are not making one. To make paper wallets less fragile, people sometimes laminate them, create multiple copies and store them in different places, engrave them on pieces of metal or other strong materials, etc.

Note that it is not a good idea to keep electronic copies of your paper wallet on your PC. The paper wallet private key must always be kept offline. Keeping your paper wallet files online makes them as safe as a hot wallet.

Cloud Wallets

Online wallets, by definition, are all the rage. Using a cloud wallet, your funds can be accessed from any computer, device or location. They are super convenient, but they store your private keys online and can be controlled by a third party. Therefore, they are more vulnerable to attacks and theft by design. Popular cloud wallets include:

software wallets

Software wallets are downloaded and installed on a personal computer or smartphone. They are hot wallets. Desktop and mobile wallets offer a high level of security; however, they cannot protect you from hacks and viruses, so you should try your best to stay malware free. As a rule, mobile wallets are much smaller and simpler than desktop wallets, but you can easily manage your funds using both. Additionally, some software wallets allow you to access funds through multiple devices simultaneously, including smartphones, laptops, and even hardware wallets.

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Hardware Wallets

Unlike software wallets, hardware wallets store your private keys on an external device like USB. They are totally cool and safe. Also, they are able to make payments online. Some hardware wallets support web interfaces and support multiple currencies. They are designed to make transactions easy and convenient, so all you need to do is plug it into any online device, unlock your wallet, send currency and confirm a transaction. Hardware wallets are considered the most secure means of storing digital assets. The only downside is that they are not free.

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Popular hardware wallets include devices by:

Getting a hardware wallet directly from the manufacturer is the safest way. It's not safe to buy it from other people, especially those you don't know. Keep in mind that even if you get a hardware wallet from a producer, you must always initialize and restart it yourself.

Security best practices to prevent your private keys from being stolen

So you've decided to take control of your virtual assets and keep everything in a private wallet. Well done! However, with great power comes great responsibility, and now it all depends on your ability to stay safe and keep your private keys private.

The most common security steps to follow are:

  • Do not hold cryptocurrencies on exchange for an extended period or longer than necessary.
  • Always enable the two-factor authentication (2FA) function.
  • If you choose a hardware wallet, choose a hard-to-guess PIN code and never put your 24-word recovery sheet online.
  • Do not brag about your cryptocurrency assets publicly under your real name or identifiable address. Some thieves manage to steal virtual funds even if you keep them in cold (offline) storage.
  • Only trust what you see on the hardware wallet screen and verify all information on the device.
  • Always assume that your devices can be compromised at any time, so always treat your computer or smartphone screen with care.

Also, follow these tips to minimize the chances of losing your coins.

Be aware of phishing sites. Whether you are connecting to Exchange or the online wallet, please confirm that you are logging in to the correct address. Many fake websites imitate exchanges for the sole purpose of stealing your login details. Always make sure your website address is correct.

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HTTPS. Only log in to secure websites with a valid HTTPS certificate. Most legitimate websites have one. For extra security, try browser plugins like “HTTPS Everywhere”.

Use a secure Wi-Fi connection. Never connect your online wallet, switch accounts or other security critical points via public WiFi. Even when you're in a presumably safe place, make sure your WiFi hotspot uses strong encryption, such as the WPA-2 protocol.

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Set aside your funds. Don't keep all your virtual assets in one place. The best way to handle this is by using one or several cold stores for long-term assets and at least one hot wallet for trades and transactions.

Two-factor authentication. Always protect your accounts with 2FA. Whenever possible, use 2FA software or hardware instruments instead of SMS.

IP whitelist and withdrawal addresses. If you have a static IP address, use it for your security. Make sure that only you can access your accounts and funds.

Double check the cryptographic addresses. Some malicious programs can edit and paste an incorrect transaction address whenever you submit a transaction. Typically, the new address belongs to an attacker. It is better to be safe than to be sorry.

Use security measures that you can control. Some people never feel safe and go out of their way to secure their cryptocurrency. However, they forget that they can also lose encryption for their security tools. Losing access to your accounts, funds or wallets is as common as hacks. Don't complicate your security if that's not what you like anyway. Strive for a proper balance between complexity and security.

The art of keeping your cryptocurrency safe and secure is a critical skill to master on a journey to becoming your own bank. The sooner you learn, the better.